INTRODUCTION

It is believed that Adam was the first person to deliver Safety Advice when he cautioned eve against the forbidden / unsafe fruits. This first incident occurred when Eve unheard the Safety advice and are the forbidden / unsafe fruit. Since then fight against hazard is continuing. However it is now well established that accident do not just happen but they are caused and hence it is possible to prevent them. In this presentation efforts are made to suggest some ideas to reduce / eliminate the hazards at work place. The following is the brief of the detail presentation.

AIM

To highlight the most common practices adapted at shop floor and to suggest most appropriate and safe practices adopted internationally for the similar activities.

BENEFITS

Benefits helps to maintain the low accident rate, Man-hours lost due to accident minimizes, Confidence of the employees increases
towards the system, Helps to keep maintaining the health of employee in good condition, Improves Company image at the International level, market, share holders, Helps to achieve the goal of company / Vision of the company.

DEFINITIONS

Hazards:- A source or a situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, damage to property, environment or a combination of all.

Risk:- Combination of likelihood and consequence of specified hazardous event occurred.

Accident:- Undesired event which may give rise to death, ill health, injury, damage or other loss.

Incidents:- An event that gave rise to an accident or had the potential to lead an accident.

Near Miss:- An incident where no ill health, injury, damage or other loss occurs but have the potential to lead to an incident.

SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

For any organization – existence of Safety Management system is an integral part to ensure highest level of safety in all areas of its work with clear emphasis on improving the environment safety, health of its employee.

Requirement for making safety management system effective-

a) Clearly stated Safety Policy
b) Use of PPE’s
c) Safety culture and good housekeeping
d) Safety survey
e) Safety committee
f) HAZOP and QRA
g) Work permit procedures / system
h) Task based risk assessment
i) Incident investigation and analysis
j) Training
k) Safety audits
l) System to check the reliability to critical
m) Knowledge Occupational hazards system & devices
n) Emergency planning

Innovative ideas for making Safety Management system effective

Safety committee- Participation must be ensured at all levels and suggestions must be encouraged. Minutes of safety committee meeting must be made with target date for completion followed by rigorous follow up.

Housekeeping – Areas to be divided and competitions for best housekeeping should be carried out & best group should be suitably rewarded. Feedback from users of the various areas to be taken to ensure the effective housekeeping. Window cleaning practices to be developed.

Lighting Survey – Regular lighting survey to be conducted to ensure the required illumination level at workplace.

Work permit system – Work permit is the back bone of the safety management system. All the mobs in hazardous area must be perform under work permit system. Apart from the regular measures adopted in various industries following innovative ideas related to work permit system helps in improving the safety measures.

a) Task based risk assessment before issuing the permit
b) Tool box talk to familiarize the employees with specific hazards and their precautionary measures.
c) Auditing of work permit system at site.

First aid provision – Record of first aid treatments and consumption of medicines to be kept for analysis which will help to find out the impact of working environment on health of worker. Executive health checkup the Occupational health checkup to be introduce for better monitoring of the health of the workman. Audiometry testing to be introduced for the person working in the high noise area helps to reduce the Noise Induced Hearing Loss disease. Corrective actions like job rotation, improving working environment etc. can be taken.

Appointment and control of contractors – Approved vender list to be prepared. While evaluating Safety performance should be one of the criteria. Safety performance data to be mentioned in the work completion certificate. Quality of PPE’s provided by contractor to be evaluated at site. Prepare site safety procedures and it should be part of tender document for the contract.

Asbestos – Can cause asbestosis (health hazard). All asbestos containing materials to be removed with time bound programme by a non asbestos containing material. First attack on removing the asbestos blanket, gloves, gaskets etc since workman are in routine contact with it. All new construction to be made with asbestos free material.

Training and job rotation – Training to the workman for regular sudation and enhancement of the skills with their respective field. Job rotation practice to be implemented for exposure of the workman to different areas of work. Working environment and health suitability of the workman to be consider before job rotation.

Investigation of Injuries, Near miss, Accidents etc – Motivate the employees for reporting of accidents, near miss etc. All accidents including first and injuries to be investigated to avoid / minimize the recurrence. Root cause analysis techniques to be implemented to find out basic things, which are cultivated to cause accidents. Analysis of all accidents to be carried out in different ways as per IS:3786:1983 so that accident trends can be find out which will help to take further preventive measures in the required direction.

Safety Audits, inspection and monitoring – Internal Safety audits from multidisciplinary team to be carried out with time bound schedule for implementation of recommendations. Routine safety inspections to be implemented for to find out the things that can lead to cause near miss, accidents etc. Jobs in the hazardous area to be regularly monitored to avoid accidents. Suggestions regarding safety from shop floor to be encouraged.

Colour coding – Colour coding of all the pipelines, cylinders, access equipments etc. to be done as per the BIS guideline to avoid confusion. Sign boards showing the colour codes to be prominently displayed. Safety sign boards with respect to hazard at prominent locations with proper colour coding to be displayed so that first hand information can be made available. Material Safety Data to be displayed for each chemical available in the premises.

Motivation – Various schemes to be implemented to motivate the employee to cultivate the safety culture : a) Safety competitions to be arranged. B) Safety Gifts to be distributed among the employees. c) Safety incentives scheme can be developed. d) Award like safe man of the year can be started. e) Winners of safety competitions to be suitably rewarded.

Recognition of the company – Participation in various Safety Awards competitions, Adoption of International Safety ranking for practicing best safety systems.

Creating awareness – All the emergency telephone numbers to be displayed at prominent location to facilitate communication during emergency. Distribute pocket safety Manuals and Pamphlets related to Health and Safety to create awareness amongst the workers. Safety briefing to be carried out to keep the employees acquainted regarding safety measures and actions in case of emergency. All relevant signs of safety to be displayed at required locations with proper colour coding.

Hazop and QRA study – Hazop and QRA study to be carried out to find out: a) How deviations from the intension of the design can occur and decides whether these deviation can give rise to hazardous conditions. b) Identification and assessment of flammable hazards. c) Assessment of the risk to individuals and group / society. d) Determination of the risk reduction measures. e) Recommending the remedial measures.

Emergency preparedness plan – Regular practice of the emergency preparedness plan to be ensured.

Checking of systems –

a) Company should have a well documented Operation and Maintenance Procedures with a revision status on the basis of      PDCA cycle.
b) All the provided safety interlocks to be checked regularly.
c) System to be implemented to check all the tools, tackles, instruments and equipments regularly for their healthy and working condition. d) Date of testing and due dates to be prominently marked near the equipments / instruments to know the status of the same in the filed e) All the systems which are under maintenance / breakdown must be prominently marked to show the status of the same in the field.

Safety during construction / commissioning

a) Use o work permit system must be ensured.
b) Dedicated safety personnel must be provided for safety supervision.
c) All the excavated / uneven area must be barricaded.
d) All the pressurized containers / systems must be thoroughly checked before us.
e) Ensure the use of all relevant PPE’s
f) Proper segregation of the construction material must be ensured.
g) All the emergency exists / walkways must be kept clear for fast evacuation in case of emergency.
h) The operators of all the machinery e.g. Cranes, forklifts etc. must be properly trained.
i) Allow use of all the lifting tools and tackles after necessary verification of relevant testing documents /     certificates with respect to their SWL avoid confusing the crane operators by giving ideas from all angles.
j) Ensure proper illumination at working site.
k) Do not engage the worker beyond the limit to avoid work stress / fatigue.
l) Allow frequent brakes / rests to improve efficiency.
m) Ensure all the workers must be apprise of the risk involved in the work and emergency situations.
n) All the electrically operated machines must be checked for worthiness of their inbuilt safety system.
o) Laying of all the electrical cables must be done with tagging in a systematic way to avoid any confusion.
p) Avoid loose electrical connections or open wiring.
q) Provision of first and facility and welfare of the workers must be ensured at site.
r) Necessary fire fighting system must be kept in ready condition to deal with any eventuality.
s) Avoid manual handling of the heavy materials to avoid ergonomic problems.
t) Before taking the facility in use pre-commissioning safety audit may be carried out.
u)Ensure isolation of power supply before maintenance Adequately rated and ISI marked PPE’s and fittings     must be used for maintenance.
v) Quality of the cables to be checked before installation and during maintenance.
w) All flame proof fitting must be inspected from competent personnel.

Guarding of the machine –

a) Moving parts of the machine and conveyer belts must be adequately guarded with interlock facility to stop      the machine / belts when guard is removed.
b) Unauthorised entry to be restricted in shop floor areas / machine areas.
c) Proper training with validity time to be given to all concern employees.
d) Emergency stop button facilities to be provided at easily accessible place as well as near the machine.
e) Provision of proper guards must be ensured before starting the machines.
f) Employees with loose clothing must be restricted from entering in the area.
g) Guarding survey must be done frequently to ensure its worthiness.
h) Responsibility must be assigned to check the guards frequently.

Safety with cylinders-

  • Cylinders used in horizontal position shall be so secured that they cannot roll
  • Do not slide, drop or playing with cylinder
  • Cylinders to be moved with the help of trolley
  • Colour coding of the cylinders to be followed to identify content.
  • Pressurized cylinders movement to be carried out with safety cap to avoid damage to valves.
  • LPG cylinder and cylinders containing liquefiable gases shall always be kept in an upright position and shall be so placed that   they cannot be knocked over.
  • Regular Inspection of cylinders and associated attachments

Safety in storage of material –

Improper stacking of material may fall to cause injury Materials kept in haphazard manner can cause hindrance for safe evacuation during emergency Improperly segregated material may created confusion during identification Improper tagging Safe working load must be marked on the storage racks and structure to avoid overloading It is to be ensured not to store the material beyond SWL limit. Use of mechanized system to be promoted.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Bio-Data
The author is B.Sc., B.E. (Fire Engg.) and also Lead Auditor OHSAS 18001 & Internal Auditor (ISO:9000 & 14000).

Shri Sharma having work experience of 15 years in the field is presently working as Senior Manager (Fire & Safety), GAIL (India) Ltd., Vaghodia., Dist: Vadodara.