It is believed that
Adam was the first person to deliver Safety Advice when
he cautioned eve against the forbidden / unsafe fruits.
This first incident occurred when Eve unheard the Safety
advice and are the forbidden / unsafe fruit. Since then
fight against hazard is continuing. However it is now
well established that accident do not just happen but
they are caused and hence it is possible to prevent
them. In this presentation efforts are made to suggest
some ideas to reduce / eliminate the hazards at work
place. The following is the brief of the detail presentation.
To highlight the most
common practices adapted at shop floor and to suggest
most appropriate and safe practices adopted internationally
for the similar activities.
Benefits helps to maintain
the low accident rate, Man-hours lost due to accident
minimizes, Confidence of the employees increases
towards the system, Helps to keep maintaining the health
of employee in good condition, Improves Company image
at the International level, market, share holders, Helps
to achieve the goal of company / Vision of the company.
A source or a situation with a potential for harm in
terms of human injury or ill health, damage to property,
environment or a combination of all.
Combination of likelihood and consequence of specified
hazardous event occurred.
Undesired event which may give rise to death, ill health,
injury, damage or other loss.
An event that gave rise to an accident or had the potential
to lead an accident.
An incident where no ill health, injury, damage or other
loss occurs but have the potential to lead to an incident.
For any organization
– existence of Safety Management system is an
integral part to ensure highest level of safety in all
areas of its work with clear emphasis on improving the
environment safety, health of its employee.
for making safety management system effective-
stated Safety Policy
b) Use of PPE’s
c) Safety culture and good housekeeping
d) Safety survey
e) Safety committee
f) HAZOP and QRA
g) Work permit procedures / system
h) Task based risk assessment
i) Incident investigation and analysis
k) Safety audits
l) System to check the reliability to critical
m) Knowledge Occupational hazards system & devices
n) Emergency planning
for making Safety Management system effective
Participation must be ensured at all levels and suggestions
must be encouraged. Minutes of safety committee meeting
must be made with target date for completion followed
by rigorous follow up.
– Areas to be divided and competitions
for best housekeeping should be carried out & best
group should be suitably rewarded. Feedback from users
of the various areas to be taken to ensure the effective
housekeeping. Window cleaning practices to be developed.
– Regular lighting survey to be conducted
to ensure the required illumination level at workplace.
system – Work permit is the back bone
of the safety management system. All the mobs in hazardous
area must be perform under work permit system. Apart
from the regular measures adopted in various industries
following innovative ideas related to work permit system
helps in improving the safety measures.
a) Task based risk assessment before issuing the permit
b) Tool box talk to familiarize the employees with specific
hazards and their precautionary measures.
c) Auditing of work permit system at site.
First aid provision
– Record of first aid treatments and
consumption of medicines to be kept for analysis which
will help to find out the impact of working environment
on health of worker. Executive health checkup the Occupational
health checkup to be introduce for better monitoring
of the health of the workman. Audiometry testing to
be introduced for the person working in the high noise
area helps to reduce the Noise Induced Hearing Loss
disease. Corrective actions like job rotation, improving
working environment etc. can be taken.
and control of contractors – Approved
vender list to be prepared. While evaluating Safety
performance should be one of the criteria. Safety performance
data to be mentioned in the work completion certificate.
Quality of PPE’s provided by contractor to be
evaluated at site. Prepare site safety procedures and
it should be part of tender document for the contract.
Can cause asbestosis (health hazard). All asbestos
containing materials to be removed with time bound programme
by a non asbestos containing material. First attack
on removing the asbestos blanket, gloves, gaskets etc
since workman are in routine contact with it. All new
construction to be made with asbestos free material.
job rotation – Training to the workman
for regular sudation and enhancement of the skills with
their respective field. Job rotation practice to be
implemented for exposure of the workman to different
areas of work. Working environment and health suitability
of the workman to be consider before job rotation.
of Injuries, Near miss, Accidents etc –
Motivate the employees for reporting of accidents, near
miss etc. All accidents including first and injuries
to be investigated to avoid / minimize the recurrence.
Root cause analysis techniques to be implemented to
find out basic things, which are cultivated to cause
accidents. Analysis of all accidents to be carried out
in different ways as per IS:3786:1983 so that accident
trends can be find out which will help to take further
preventive measures in the required direction.
inspection and monitoring – Internal
Safety audits from multidisciplinary team to be carried
out with time bound schedule for implementation of recommendations.
Routine safety inspections to be implemented for to
find out the things that can lead to cause near miss,
accidents etc. Jobs in the hazardous area to be regularly
monitored to avoid accidents. Suggestions regarding
safety from shop floor to be encouraged.
– Colour coding of all the pipelines,
cylinders, access equipments etc. to be done as per
the BIS guideline to avoid confusion. Sign boards showing
the colour codes to be prominently displayed. Safety
sign boards with respect to hazard at prominent locations
with proper colour coding to be displayed so that first
hand information can be made available. Material Safety
Data to be displayed for each chemical available in
Various schemes to be implemented to motivate
the employee to cultivate the safety culture : a) Safety
competitions to be arranged. B) Safety Gifts to be distributed
among the employees. c) Safety incentives scheme can
be developed. d) Award like safe man of the year can
be started. e) Winners of safety competitions to be
of the company – Participation in various
Safety Awards competitions, Adoption of International
Safety ranking for practicing best safety systems.
– All the emergency telephone numbers
to be displayed at prominent location to facilitate
communication during emergency. Distribute pocket safety
Manuals and Pamphlets related to Health and Safety to
create awareness amongst the workers. Safety briefing
to be carried out to keep the employees acquainted regarding
safety measures and actions in case of emergency. All
relevant signs of safety to be displayed at required
locations with proper colour coding.
Hazop and QRA
study – Hazop and QRA study to be carried
out to find out: a) How deviations from the intension
of the design can occur and decides whether these deviation
can give rise to hazardous conditions. b) Identification
and assessment of flammable hazards. c) Assessment of
the risk to individuals and group / society. d) Determination
of the risk reduction measures. e) Recommending the
plan – Regular practice of the emergency
preparedness plan to be ensured.
a) Company should
have a well documented Operation and Maintenance Procedures
with a revision status on the basis of PDCA
b) All the provided safety interlocks to be checked
c) System to be implemented to check all the tools,
tackles, instruments and equipments regularly for
their healthy and working condition. d) Date of testing
and due dates to be prominently marked near the equipments
/ instruments to know the status of the same in the
filed e) All the systems which are under maintenance
/ breakdown must be prominently marked to show the
status of the same in the field.
construction / commissioning
a) Use o work permit
system must be ensured.
b) Dedicated safety personnel must be provided for
c) All the excavated / uneven area must be barricaded.
d) All the pressurized containers / systems must be
thoroughly checked before us.
e) Ensure the use of all relevant PPE’s
f) Proper segregation of the construction material
must be ensured.
g) All the emergency exists / walkways must be kept
clear for fast evacuation in case of emergency.
h) The operators of all the machinery e.g. Cranes,
forklifts etc. must be properly trained.
i) Allow use of all the lifting tools and tackles
after necessary verification of relevant testing documents
/ certificates with respect
to their SWL avoid confusing the crane operators by
giving ideas from all angles.
j) Ensure proper illumination at working site.
k) Do not engage the worker beyond the limit to avoid
work stress / fatigue.
l) Allow frequent brakes / rests to improve efficiency.
m) Ensure all the workers must be apprise of the risk
involved in the work and emergency situations.
n) All the electrically operated machines must be
checked for worthiness of their inbuilt safety system.
o) Laying of all the electrical cables must be done
with tagging in a systematic way to avoid any confusion.
p) Avoid loose electrical connections or open wiring.
q) Provision of first and facility and welfare of
the workers must be ensured at site.
r) Necessary fire fighting system must be kept in
ready condition to deal with any eventuality.
s) Avoid manual handling of the heavy materials to
avoid ergonomic problems.
t) Before taking the facility in use pre-commissioning
safety audit may be carried out.
u)Ensure isolation of power supply before maintenance
Adequately rated and ISI marked PPE’s and fittings
must be used for maintenance.
v) Quality of the cables to be checked before installation
and during maintenance.
w) All flame proof fitting must be inspected from
the machine –
a) Moving parts of
the machine and conveyer belts must be adequately
guarded with interlock facility to stop the
machine / belts when guard is removed.
b) Unauthorised entry to be restricted in shop floor
areas / machine areas.
c) Proper training with validity time to be given
to all concern employees.
d) Emergency stop button facilities to be provided
at easily accessible place as well as near the machine.
e) Provision of proper guards must be ensured before
starting the machines.
f) Employees with loose clothing must be restricted
from entering in the area.
g) Guarding survey must be done frequently to ensure
h) Responsibility must be assigned to check the guards
- Cylinders used in
horizontal position shall be so secured that they
- Do not slide, drop
or playing with cylinder
- Cylinders to be
moved with the help of trolley
- Colour coding of
the cylinders to be followed to identify content.
- Pressurized cylinders
movement to be carried out with safety cap to avoid
damage to valves.
- LPG cylinder and
cylinders containing liquefiable gases shall always
be kept in an upright position and shall be so placed
that they cannot be knocked over.
- Regular Inspection
of cylinders and associated attachments
Safety in storage
of material –
of material may fall to cause injury
Materials kept in haphazard manner can cause hindrance
for safe evacuation during emergency
Improperly segregated material may created confusion
during identification Improper
tagging Safe working load must
be marked on the storage racks and structure to avoid
overloading It is to be ensured
not to store the material beyond SWL limit.
Use of mechanized system to be promoted.