However, environment management systems (EMSs) have
been developed more recently and consist of the organizational
structure, responsibilities, practices, procedures,
processes and resources which the enterprise uses
to achieve its environmental policy.
Cleaner production, like EMSs, is a strategic approach
to environmental protection. Cleaner production means
designing industrial processes and products to prevent
the pollution of media and to make efficient use of
raw materials, therefore cleaner production approaches
require enterprises to anticipate and mitigate the
environmental impacts of their production processes.
In general, production processes are retrofitted to
control environmental impacts in response to legislation.
Even normative legislation which gives preference
to cleaner technology over end-of-pipe solutions is
not normally heeded by industry.
Cleaner production initiative requires
businesses to be converted to their message: that
it is cost-effective and beneficial for enterprises
to manage their environmental performance proactively.
Thus the cleaner production approach is the new and
dynamic field, which aims to straddle the practical
and theoretical as well as the international, regional,
national and industry perspectives. In these
new emerging times and new challenges in the age of
globalization, liberalization and open market competition
both for developing and developed countries and from
both small and large enterprises, it summons the call
of “Pollution Prevention Pays” by Michel
Royston in his book.
Particularly high pollution potential industries
and using huge amount of water and energy for production
are mostly in need of cleaner production initiatives
for their own economic and environmental survival.
For example paper and pulp industries, pesticides
and agro chemical industries, dyes and intermediate
industries, drugs – pharmaceuticals and intermediates
industries, textile and manmade fiber industries,
petroleum refining and petrochemical manufacturing
industries and sugar and distillery industries are
required for their own to conserve their resources
in terms of water, raw material, energy and amenities.
This can only be achieved by exploring the possibilities
of cleaner production by innovative practices which
ultimately guarantees the improvement in environmental
safety and occupational health of the industries.
It would be worth while to refer to some of the illustrative
example which are being explored by the enterprising
industries to sustain themselves, yielding better
production and least waste. For example, in paper
and pulp industries maximum material and processed
water can be reused or some of the value added by-products
can be made like lignin, cellulose, sugars, enzymes
and other bio-chemically important molecules. Particularly,
in the case of dyes and dyes intermediates industries,
it is a boon for making profit out of waste stream
recoveries through innovative techniques for manufacturing
by-products like spent acids, organic chemicals, salts
and even energy from the high COD molecules by way
of destructive degradation. Similarly, in pesticides
manufacturing many more new molecules have arrived
in the market and the same could also be manufactured
by cleaner and environment friendly technologies.
Such kind of innovations can only be achieved by
in house R&D and harnessing expertise from out
side. This may be affordable to large scale units
but it would be very difficult for small scale industries
where people are mostly self employed and less qualified.
The Government, at different levels, right from state
to the national and international levels, has initiated
to help such small entrepreneurs of all the sectors
to come to the door of cleaner production centers.
Thus the cleaner production initiatives emphase basically
on improving the efficiency by self check with the
help of continuous mass balance, water balance and
energy balance and to plug the loop holes where the
thing gets lost and there is no scope for recovery.
Where we can exactly apply the principles of thermodynamics
and chemical equilibrium following Le Chatelier’s
Principle suggesting reversible nature of chemical